Unlimited Range Shooters Association (URSA)

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"Unlimited Range Shooters Association (URSA)"

Objective: Utilizing a loose, non-commercial, shooter-, builder-, owner-, and supporter-based affiliation of interested parties, promote and provide an organized, documented mechanism for the development, demonstration, and recognition of shooter and shooting system (system) competence in the unlimited range (UR) shooting sport discipline.

Focus: Learning, sharing, demonstrating, recording, and recognizing

General Statement of Purpose:

   The URSA shall promote and assist in providing unlimited range (UR) shooters an opportunity to associate with other UR shooters, UR system builders, and UR system component builders, and, in the process, provide a structured, documented mechanism to:

    ● develop, demonstrate, and recognize the competence of UR shooters, UR systems, and UR system components,

     ● advance the UR sport shooting discipline, and

     ● enhance the UR system and UR system component  ownership experience.

Definitions/Descriptions/"Rules" (alphabetical):

     ● "Achievement levels/progression"

         ► Shooters:

                                                    Target Count               Per Target Hits/Shots                Distance

     Level                                       per Level/Total                       This Level                          (Yards)

      1  (Novice Shooter)                           5   5                                   5   10                            2000

      2  (Shooter)                                       5   10                                 6   10                            2500

      3  (Master Shooter)                           5   15                                 7   10                            3000

      4  (Grand Master Shooter)                5   20                                 8   10                            3500

         ► System Builders (minimum of chambering and barrel fitting):

      System Builder 1 - at least 5 systems at Shooter level

      System Builder 2 - at least 5 systems at Shooter level plus at least 5 at Master Shooter level

      System Builder 3 - at least 5 systems at Master Shooter level plus at least 5 at Grand Master Shooter level

         ► System Component Builders (action, barrel, chassis, scope, scope mounting hardware, projectile, and target solution "calculator/computer")

       Component Builder 1 - at least 5 of the same component at Shooter level

       Component Builder 2 - at least 5 of the same component at Shooter level plus at least 5 at Master Shooter level

       Component Builder 3 - at least 5 of the same component at Master Shooter level plus at least 5 at Grand Master Shooter level

         NOTE: Each shooter must document their rifle/system build (develop and maintain a "build sheet") and provide it to the Match Director to identify each rifle/system. See "Liability Release, Build Sheet, & Results (form)".

    ● "Activities/Events" - education/novice training/practice (non-record-target activities), demonstrations, matches, expositions, conferences, etc.

    ● "Accuracy and consistency, demonstration" - hit count vs shot count for multiple targets

    ● "Accuracy and consistency, match" - winner determined by hit count vs shot count for engaged targets (highest wins); ties settled by average shot dispersion from target center (on the final target). In regards ties, if the final target is missed, there will be a 1”/100 yard penalty assessed per miss, e.g., if the target is at 2500 yards and one shot is missed, the missed shot will be averaged into the target aggregate as a distance from center of target of 25“.

    ● "Associate" - interested parties that participate in or otherwise work to advance the Association

    ● "Capability" - the ability to do something (Merriam-Webster dictionary) [provided only for comparison with "competence"]

    ● "Competence" - the ability to do something well (Merriam-Webster dictionary). In the case of URSA shooting, competence in accurately and consistently hitting targets at UR distances.

    ● "Demonstrated Safe Hardware, Experimental Firearms" - pre-event firing of experimental firearms without injury to the shooter or others or damage to the firearm/system (minimum of 5 shots within 10 minutes); the respective Regional Director, or their official designee, MUST witness the demonstration

    ●  "Distance Determination" - average of distances "calculated" using three (3) devices (could be rangefinders, satellite spottings, or others that are deemed by the activity/event director to be reliable - line of sight, not "walked" distance) from the firing line to each target; preferred for all activities/events, required for match. Use what you have available BUT do not submit for "record" unless the activity/event director AND substantially more than half the shooters (half being a minimum of 3) agree that the distance stated is accurate to within +/- 20 yards. [NOTE:To help get an accurate rangefinder return consider using a 4-5’ wide x 6’ high section of sheet metal, positioned vertically, and supported by 2-3 1”x2”x6’ stakes - something reflective that can reasonable fit in a pick-up bed.]

    ●  "Experimental Firearm" - any system deemed, by the activity/event Director or activity/event Safety Committee, as having such physical structure and/or firing "unknown cartridges" where safe function cannot be determined without functional testing; assessment done on a "best effort" basis. The system MUST be demonstrated safe!  See also, "Experimental Firearms Demonstration".

    ●  "Experimental Firearms Demonstration " - pre-event firing of experimental firearms without injury to the shooter or others or damage to the firearm/system (minimum of 5 shots within 10 minutes); the respective RD, or their official designee, MUST witness the demonstration.

    ● "Formal Record" - the activity/event director shall provide the associated RD with the ORIGINALS of ALL activity/event "Liability Release, Build Sheet, & Results (forms)" within five (5) business days of the end of the activity/event.  The RD will review the forms and e-mail photos/images of same to the individual (if so noted as requested on the form) and to the Facilitator/Webmaster within an additional ten (10) business days.  The Facilitator/Webmaster will compile and post results and build sheet data on the URSA website within an additional ten (10) business days.

    ● "Funding" - required funding will be provided by the activity/event participants and/or third parties on a "pay-as-you-go" basis.

         ► Typical costs (e.g., venue "rental", steel upkeep, paper targets, etc.) - shared equally by participants

         ► Process:

             1  Calculate the number of participants needed to fund the activity/event at a price which the associated RD considers "acceptable".

             2. Participants pre-pay in "cash".  If acceptable "cash" includes checks, the payee will be, for example, the event venue owner/administrator.  The associated RD to decide what will be accepted as "cash".

             3. Pre-payments are accumulated up to a specific date.

             4. If sufficient "funds" are received by the specified date, the activity goes forward.

            5. If sufficient funds are not received by the date specified, all pre-payments will be promptly refunded.


  1. Once a pre-payment is received, those funds are committed and will ONLY be refunded if the activity does not go forward for lack of sufficient pre-payments. Not going forward due to an act of God shall not be reason for refund. If the party who was paid (e.g., the venue owner) refunds part or all of the pre-payments for an event that did not go forward, pre-payments will be refunded on a proportional basis. NO associate or volunteer will be paid for their time, services, or expenses unless same is fully disclosed in the announcement of the activity/event and the request for pre-payment (as part of registration).

  2. If a check is dishonored (bounces), the shooter will be banned from competition for one year.

    ● "Hit Determination" - every HIT must be definitive. Either the "object" is hit or it is not.

         ► "Steel" is preferred for all activities/events.

 1.  Steel should  be 37" in diameter x at least 3/8" thick AR500 and should be mounted vertically (preferably hung with 8" or more of ground clearance).

 2.  If "steel" is used, at least two, non-shooting shooters (i.e., shooters other than the one for which a hit is being determined) and the Line Control (person) - and preferably the activity/event director - must agree they heard the hit.

 3.  If only sound is used, "steel" will be engaged by only one shooter at a time.

 4.  If definitive, non-environmental movement is used (e.g., an IRIS light flash. NOT sound), multiple shooters may engage multiple targets concurrently (one-for-one with hit indicator) IF sufficient "hit counters" (people) are present to confirm the hit indicator was activated (at least two per shooter).

 5.  Ricochets off the ground or other terrain feature that subsequently hit the target are NOT consider hits even if the hit indicator is activated. Line control and/or activity/event director determination shall be definitive as to what was or was not a ricochet.

         ► If paper is used, either the target must be changed between shooters, and between "practice" and "record" shots, OR "electronics" must be used to spot each hit. Each hit must be recorded before proceeding to the next shot unless the "electronics" can play back the string. ONLY matches require paper and "exact" hit location recording. For demonstration, but non-match, hit or miss is sufficient - and preferred for sake of time.

         ► Hit placement on paper is ALWAYS measured in relation to the center of the target (i.e., the center of the "circular" target). If a non-circular target (object) is used, a shot inside the "virtual circle" (within which the entire object is located), but NOT actually hitting the target, is a miss. Match paper targets will be measured for accuracy and reported accordingly. See definition/description, "Accuracy and consistency, match".

         ► The number of shots taken MUST be managed - counted by at least two other shooters or one other shooter and a Line Control person - and preferably by the activity/event director. If there are multiple shooters shooting concurrently, this may be a challenge. The shooter's string shall be disqualified for less than or more than the specified number of record shots for the activity/event - without right to re-shoot.

   ● "Liability Release, Build Sheet, & Results (form)" - see link. For each activity/event the shooter shall complete one form for each “rifle” fielded.  ALL non-shooters shall complete the Liability Release portion.

    ● "Order of Fire" - the sequence in which shooters engage record targets (#1 is first, #2 is second, etc.); chosen by simple "drawing of numbers from a hat”; drawing to be conducted by the activity/event director; includes choice of shooting location (spot, bench, pad, etc.). Shooters draw one “ticket” for each “rifle” fielded. If there are any shooters shooting multiple “rifles”, ALL other shooters shoot before those shooters.  Their second or subsequent tickets are for the second and subsequent series of shooters. For example, if there are three shooters with two rifles each, their second tickets will be used to set their sequence between themselves, AFTER all other shooters have shot.

    ● "Personal Safety, Minimum Requirements" - eye protection (ANSI Z87+ or better with side shields or of a wrap-around design); hearing protection (Noise Reduction Rating/NRR of 25 or higher, preferably double plugged); open chamber indicator in place at ALL times when the range is not Hot or, if still Hot, after the shooter has completed firing.

    ● "Record String" - 10 shots, fired in sequence, for the purpose of formal (formally recorded) URSA competence demonstration or match shooting; must be completed within ten (10) minutes.  NOTE: If the match director determines that there are too many shooters to allow for a max of 10 minutes/shooter, the match director may reduce the maximum allowed time.  The absolute minimum allowed time is five (5) minutes for 10 shots/shooter.  Any reduced time allowance MUST be announced before timed shooting begins.

    ● "Restricted Projectiles" - armor piercing and incendiary projectiles are prohibited.  Use of non-conventional (i.e., “Experimental”) projectiles, including sabots, require prior demonstration.  See “Experimental Firearms” and “Experimental Firearm Demonstration.”  All “assisted” projectiles require prior demonstartion.

    ● "Rifle" - the projectile "firing" device; composed of a barrel, action or receiver, and chassis/stock/(mounting) structure. [Clarification in regards barrel swapping - each unique barrel plus the balance of the “rifle” is considered a unique “rifle”.]

    ● "Safe Field of Fire" - the activity/event director MUST post "Field-of-Fire Monitors" with flags, bull horns, or other immediately-noticeable signaling devices.  Left side, right side, beyond targets, and between-firing-line- and-targets monitoring is REQUIRED.  If "flagged" as unsafe, ALL shooting shall immediately stop and chambers will be  immediately cleared. When safe, and AFTER the line has been noticed by Line Control as being HOT, shooting resumes as if there was no interruption.  NOTE: If there are 10 or fewer shooters, all within close proximity, ALL shooters will act as field-of-fire monitors, using voice or other immediately recognizable means of alerting.  For cause, anyone can call a non-routine “cease fire”.

    ● “Shooting Position/Set-Up” - the description of how the rifle/system is fielded (e.g., prone with front and rear bag; prone with bipod and rear bag, from a concrete bench and front and rear bags, etc.).

    ● "Spotter" - each shooter MAY have one (1) spotter; if the shooter has a spotter, the spotter will be identified on the "Liability Release, Build Sheet, & Results (form)" including identification of the "optics" used by the spotter.

    ● "Sudden Death" - the method used to settle ties. “Sudden Death” is defined as one shot from shooter 1, then one shot from shooter 2, etc., back and forth, one shot at a time, until one shooter is unable to match another shooter’s hit. If a shooter runs out of ammo, they are out. If there are only two shooters and one shooter runs out of ammo, the other shooter wins once they shoot one unanswered shot - since they then did what was required to win, i.e., beat or outlasted other shooters while still shooting at least one round (thus they competed).

    ● "System" - the rifle and its attached hardware (e.g., if the firearm is attached via a "post" to the bed of a truck, the system is understood to be the rifle, an "attachment post" and an "attached truck"; "system" to be described in sufficient detail (for purposes of documentation) to provide a basic understanding of what was used. Bags, rests, and other such NON-attached items are NOT part of a system.  Also see "Unlimited".

    ● "Target":

         ► Preferred for all purposes, required for matches and achievement-level activities/events - paper or the steel equivalent of the outermost ring of either the official IBS or NBRSA 1000 Yard benchrest target (37" diameter, 5-ring, target area); miss assessed for all shots outside that area; touching the line is a hit for paper; if the agreed "hit indicator" (e.g., an IRIS light flash)  is not activated, it is a miss.

              ■ Target sources:

                 Steel - custom, contact URSA Facilitator for detailed description of those used in the SW Region


                      IBS - http://www.pistoleer.com/shooting-targets/benchrest/ (item ID IBS1000BR)

                      NBRSA - contact Karl Hunstiger, wfo13 at aol.com

         ► Acceptable for non-match/non-achievement-level activities/events - paper target, metal target, or terrain feature (object) fully within a defined target area no larger than a 37" diameter circle (an "acceptable-virtual-circular target"); miss if off target. The shot must be verifiable by a strike on the "object". Example of a miss - the "object" is rectangular and completely fits within a 24" diameter circle, the shot does NOT hit the object.

    ● "Target maintenance" - swap paper targets between shooters and between practice and record strings. If hits are agreed to be verified by sound, or non-environmental movement, or "electronics", no maintenance is required.

    ● "Unlimited" - unless otherwise noted, system shall only be limited to the extent that all hardware and the fired ammunition/projectile may be legally owned and discharged at the location where the activity/event is conducted. There shall be no limitation on the caliber, type of projectile (other than no AP on steel and no incendiary), type of firing system, or physical restraints within which the system is implemented. The intent being to provide - as much as legally and practically possible - an opportunity to safely demonstrate and enjoy the innovation and expertise of the shooters and builders/experimenters interested in this shooting discipline.

         ► Amplification of "unlimited": the following are acceptable - return-to-battery mechanisms, single-piece/connected-front-and-rear rests, rail guns, extremely small and extremely large caliber projectiles (including sabots), guided munitions, and basically anything that is "locally legal".  Shooting may be from the ground, a bench, or a platform of the shooter's choice (from which distance to target can be reliably determined).

    ● "Unlimited Range (UR)" - for all purposes, at least 2000 yards

FAQs (frequently asked questions, unordered):

1. Q Why an Association?

    A  To formalize unlimited range shooting as a recognized shooting discipline.

2. Q Why define UR as a minimum of 2000 yards?

    A  Currently the generally used expressions of distance in rifle shooting are short range, mid-range, long range, and "ELR". Respectively these are associated with (approximately) 100, 500, 1000, and "beyond" 1000 yards. While “unlimited” suggests no specific range, great distance is the focus. “Mile” has been done and is being done. Today (February 2014) a mile is not “extreme” with shooters regularly shooting beyond 3000 yards. But...some “floor” is needed to define entry into this level of shooting sport discipline. As twice 1000 yards, 2000 yards seems to be a reasonable floor.

3. Q Why not "cold bore"?

    A  Demonstration of "consistency" requires multiple shots. URSA is intended to demonstrate and document hits, not including whether the bore was cold or other than cold when the rounds are fired. Practice/getting on target before firing record rounds is both allowed and encouraged.

4. Q From a practical standpoint, how are we to manage the "logistics" of demonstrating success at UR distances, especially when more than one shooter is involved and placing and maintaining targets is frequently, at best, difficult, not to mention time consuming?

    A  Long answer since there are multiple and significant, real-world "opportunities" to be managed. This "answer" attempts to start to address some of them. Most are situation-dependent, primarily functions of location, available-equipment, available-person-power, and "available" time. ALL the proposed shooting activities are constrained by LOCAL venue and resources. To proceed...

     a) Target placement - pre-positioning, preferred. Where that is not possible (e.g., land "owner" will not allow), multiple people and "vehicles" will be needed, applied early enough in the day to maximize shooting "window" without endangering those that place and retrieve equipment (enough visibility).

     b) Distance determination - see definition/description.

     c) Hit determination - see definition/description.

     d) Target maintenance - see definition/description.

     e) Safe field of fire - see definition/description.

5. Q Why "Unlimited"?

    A  To explicitly recognize that shooter skills and technologies will change over time and to accept and embrace improvements in both.

6. Q Why a circular target?

    A  Accuracy is measured by computing the dispersion of hits around a point. The circumference of the circle contains all locations that will count as a hit. No further measurement is required except for the purpose of match "scoring" for ties, which is also from the center point of the target, i.e., average distance of shoots to center of target).

7. Q Rule changes?

    A  Proposed changes may be submitted at any time up to each Jan 14th to go into effect each year on February 14th (approximate).  Change proposals to be submitted to the submitter's respective RD using the RD's URSA e-mail account; copy the URSA Facilitator. The Association webmaster shall also be copied on all such submissions and shall maintain a record of same.

8. Q What needs to be included on my "build sheet"?

    A  See "Liability Release, Build Sheet, & Results (form)"

        NOTE: In keeping with the Association's focus on education, sharing, and recognition of all interested parties, the build sheet data needs to be collected. If the shooter does not want that data attributed to them, they must note that on the form. However, they still need to provide it on that form. While that data will not appear in the activity's "equipment list" (fields for that specific shooter will be identified AD for "attribution declined"), or in any way be shared with third parties (i.e., parties other than the Association and the shooter), it will be used in compiling statistics which will be published on the Association website. Once the rifle/system data are compiled, that portion of the registration data will be destroyed or redacted. Aggregated data will be published only after enough is accumulated to insure that an individual shooter's equipment is reasonably NOT identifiable, nor by extension the specific activity from which the data were compiled. That noted, and after a reasonable time, if the very low probability should occur and all shooters have used the same product or service, that data will be released - not by shooter name but in aggregate, e.g., component A, manufactures represented - manufacturer XYZ: 100 percent.

9. Q How will interested parties know when and where activities will be held, how they are doing in accumulating points for purpose of recognition, etc.
A  When the Association's webmaster receives such info, it will be posted on the Association website. Detailed venue information will not be posted on the website.  Such info will be provide by the associated RD to shooters that have previously indicated that they will be shooting the event.

10. Q Who is running this thing?

      A  UNCOMPENSATED volunteers, who were chosen by those present at the 14 Jan 2014 organizational meeting or who subsequently volunteered.

11. Q Do shooters need to "re-qualify" at some interval?

      A  No. The date of level award will be included in the shooter's public record of recognition and that public record will also include the date on which the last target was shot at that accomplishment level. For example, a shooter's initial date of level recognition might be Jun '14 and the "last target at level" might be Feb '16.

12. Q Is there any way a shooter can "lose" points?

      A  No and yes. In the normal course of activities, points will not be recorded in the first place IF there is a problem (e.g., gross unsportsmanlike conduct). In that case there are no points to lose. However, if there is an "irregularity" which is not documented until after the fact, points incorrectly recorded could be "lost." As an example, a report for six named shooters is submitted, recorded, and published but there were only five shooters that completed the course of fire. In that case, points will be "lost" by the shooter not completing the course of fire.

13. Q What is the sequence of operations to run an event?     

      A The following sequence of steps is the “Standard Drill” (assumes steel gongs as targets and RTAC's IRIS systems as hit indicators).

      1.  Complete the Liability Release/Build Sheet/Results form  The shooter completes the Liability Release and Build Sheet portions of the form.  No one shoots who has not completely and accurately completed these sections.  [See Operations: FAQ 8.]  Non-shooters must complete the Liability Release section or they will not be allowed within 20 feet of the firing line at any time.  Shooters are assigned a "Shooter Number" and a "System Number" which are recorded CLEARLY in the upper/right of the form. The activity/event Chief Range Officer (CRO) reviews the form and passes it to the "Record Target" RO for scoring.  [The form goes to the associated RD at the conclusion of the activity/event and then on to the URSA Webmaster for record keeping and stats recording.]

       2. Set up targets and IRIS and conduct Shooter Safety Meeting (including drawing for shooter firing sequence).  Suggested, two (2) targets each at 2000, 2500, and 3000 yards. Throughout the course of the event targets will be moved out from there in no less than 500 yard (but not grossly more than 500 yard) increments until you run out of advancing shooters.

      3. Practice - for as long a period as the RD/MD (Match Director) feels is appropriate. Shoot up to 5 shots in succession per shooter so they can make adjustments without having to deal with as many environmental changes. 5-8 minutes* for 5 shots is about right. The shooter does NOT have to shoot any practice and if they shoot in practice they can shoot up to 5. All depends really on the quality of the shooters and how fast you expect the environmentals to go away.
       4. Qualifications - each shooter shoots 10 shots in succession in a maximum of 10 minutes*. If they score at least 3 hits in those 10 shots they qualify for the record round at 20xx. You can have up to three (3) qualification rounds IF the RD/MD feels it is worthwhile and the environmentals are great. Otherwise stop at 2 or even only 1. In any case, once a shooter has qualified they are done shooting until record round(s) begin.
       5. Record (Round/s) - those that qualified shoot the record round at 20xx. Each shooter shoots 10 rounds in succession in a maximum of 10 minutes*. If they score at least 4 hits in those 10 shots they go on to the next distance. You step thru the distances in like fashion.
       NOTE: If no one gets 4 hits during a record round, you have a sudden death shoot off for highest TIES - could be 3- or 2- or 1- or zero-hit ties. If the highest hit count during the record round is not tied, that person is the Shoot winner. Worst case, the Shoot is done at the end of sudden death, if one is required.
       6. 25xx would simply be the second record round, not a separate shoot (match), as 30xx would be the third record round, etc.
       7. At each additional distance beyond 20xx, each shooter has up to three (3) shoots to get on target (GoT), then their record shooting starts (at the RD's/MD's command). The RD/MD asks and the shooter responds regarding whether they want 3 shots to GoT and they are done when they have shot 3 (or less if they decide to shoot less than 3 AND told the RD that). The RD/MD controls when shooters start record shooting depending on how many GoT shoots they decided on. Yes, they can change their mind and shoot 3 when they said 2 or 1, advising the RD/MD accordingly. The RD/MD announces when shooters are to start record shooting. No shooting GoTs and trying to claim as record shots.
       8. If there are 2 or more shooters that score 4 or more in 10 at 25xx, the official drill is to go to 30xx and so on. If the RD/MD feels there is a realistic chance of that (shooting 30xx or further, please try to set up targets for that/those distance(s) up front - rather than pausing the shoot to reposition targets.

       * The RD/MD can reduce the maximum period within which the Practice, Qualification and/or Record shots are to be fired to a minimum of 3 minutes for Practice and 5 minutes each for Qualification and Record. This to accommodate additional shooters. NOTE: It takes a 5-8 seconds for the gong to stop vibrating and the IRIS to reset. If the light does not go off, the shot is a miss. Just a word to the wise.

     If practical, please place more than one target/IRIS set at each distance. IF you shoot more than one target at a time, the RD/MD MUST designate another party to call hits/misses on the second or subsequent target - one "caller"/target. "Caller’s" call is final.

       An alternative is:
            (2) targets at 20xx
            (1) target at 25xx - only need one as the number of people scoring well enough to get to the 25xx round will of course be dropping off quite rapidly.
            (1) target at 30xx - some shooters may get 4 or more at 25xx and rather than reposition, try to start with a target at that distance also. That gives the good shooters something to work towards and less chance of the environmentals going away than if you have to reposition targets or shooters.

       NOTE: If we do not all do it the same way, there will be less comparability between venues. While environmentals will most likely be the telling factor, adding drill variations just makes things worse, and confusion moving between venues.

14: Q: Can I enter more than one rifle?

      A: Yes, given the following requirements and constraints:

      1.  A maximum of two (2) rifles may be entered by each shooter.

      2.  Each entry requires a separate Build Sheet - identify the shooter on the second form, complete the Build Sheet section of the second form, and attach the second form to the one that has the Liability section and first-rifle Build Sheet section completed.

      3.  Shooters entering two rifles will shoot in their drawn sequence for the first rifle and after all other shooters with their second rifle.  If more than one shooter enters two rifles, they will draw between themselves for shooting sequence using the second rifle.

      4.  Rifles may NOT be swapped during an event.  That is, the shooters shoots with rifle #1, then #2, then back to rifle #1, followed by rifle #2.  But see requirement #5.

      5.  The shooter may stop shooting the first or second rifle at any time ("abandon" that rifle), thus ending their competition with that rifle for the balance of the event.  If, in the above example, the shooter abandons rifle #1 after shooting it, the shooter is done shooting with that rifle for the balance of that event - and loses that sequence in shooting.

      6.  Other than noted in this FAQ, practice, qualification, and record shooting will all be conducted as if there is a separate shooter for each rifle.

      7.  Since swapping a barrel results in a different "rifle", shooters wishing to enter a second "rifle" based on doing a barrel swap need to make their barrel swap on the line between and/or during their drawn shooting sequences. They may NOT be assisted in doing the barrel swap.  If their shooting sequences turn out to be one immediately after the other (last of X shooters and then first - or only - shooter shooting a second rifle), they are still constrained by the maximum time limit to shoot the second rifle.  That is, the time is not cumulative for the two shooting sequences.  The first ends when the last round is fired with the first rifle and the time allowed for shooting the second rifle then starts immediately, up to the maximum time allowed for each shooter during each shooting session.